If you don’t know how to drive a small zero-turn your lawn may end up looking like wild hogs played soccer on your lawn.
Do you need a zero-turn mower?
Update March 2016: Over 250,000 people have read this article over the last 3 years and it’s time to update it. There have been some significant changes including new zero-turns with steering wheels! Feel free to tell all your friends.
In this article on zero-turn mowers I am going to:
- Help you determine if a Zero-Turn is what you need.
- Help you determine if a residential zero-turn is what you need.
- Help you determine if a landowner zero-turn is what you need.
- Tell you the real truth about saving time with a zero-turn.
I like zero-turns! I have owned many over years from a 30 inch Dixon to a $45,000 Kut-Kwick Super Slope Master. They are fun and enjoyable to use.
But they are not for every yard. Please read this entire article to see if a zero-turn mower is for you!
Is a Zero-Turn what you need?
Everyone has been trying to tell you that a zero-turn mower is what you need to mow your lawn. The advertising tells you that you can mow your lawn in half the time. The dealers tell you they have the best zero-turn mower. But zero-turns or a brand from your local dealer may not be the best answer you. Why? Because you have to learn how to drive one so you can mow your lawn without tearing it up. Many versions especially the inexpensive, homeowner models do not work on slopes, ditches or hills. They are designed to mow lawns and little else. If you work them too hard the drive systems may fail prematurely. They are more expensive than lawn tractors to buy and they can be more expensive to repair. A 42 inch residential zero-turn that uses the same deck as your $1500 lawn tractor is $2300 or more. A good estate (landowner) zero-turn that will actually cut your mowing time in half is anywhere from $3000 to $7,000. So, let’s go through the facts and fiction about zero-turns.
Zero turns are made for one purpose only, mowing grass. They mow quickly and will save you time trimming around obstacles. They are NOT designed to pull things. Yes, some have a hitch and you can pull a small yard cart or spreader but you will destroy the transmissions in them if you try to pull loads of dirt, firewood or a leaf vacuum. Most are not balanced properly for baggers and require expensive counter weights in the front.
Am I an Expert at Zero-Turns?
Yes and No. I was one of the first commercial lawn care businesses in the Chicago area to start using zero-turns back in the early 90’s. By 1994 I was using crews of 2 people with zero-turns to do more work than my competitors were doing with crews of 7 using conventional Toro Groundsmasters and commercial walk-behind mowers. I have owned zero-turns as small as a Dixon 30 inch and as large as the $40,000 (Kut-Kwik SuperSlopemaster.)
I have hundreds of hours actually driving zero-turn mowers. I am particularly fond of stand-on models. Many of the problems with zero-turns that I will caution you about I have experienced myself. I’ve have had them slide down slopes and into ponds. I have knocked the decks completely off from hitting obstacles too hard. I have owned a few that I would NEVER recommend to anyone and a few that are the best mowers on the market. Currently: I sold the lawn care business a while back and moved to Wisconsin but I still use zero-turns on my own yard. Here is a collage of mowers I have owned over the years: Mowers I have Owned
I am not an engineer, but I can talk the physics and practical reasons why zero-turns act the way they do. I’ve known many of the original engineers over the years (for example, Dane Scag) and we have spent many hours discussing the fine points of mowers. For example, a 2 inch shift in where the engine is located on a residential zero-turn means a 50% difference in traction, steering and digging up your yard. I can explain why the original Dixon ZTR was one of the best residential zero-turns and why it’s no longer made.
The real truth about saving time with a zero-turn.
The general advertising states you can cut your mowing time in half using a zero turn mower instead of a traditional riding lawn tractor. That is partially true.
– The maneuverability of zero turn mowers allows you to easily mow around trees, flower beds and other obstacles in your yard more easily than a riding lawn tractor. Not having to back up and go forward or making multiple circles around a bush does save time. Compared to a conventional lawn tractor like an Poulan Pro or John Deere this can save you a lot of time. Compared to a Craftsman Yard Tractor with the Turn Tight steering this is not a big time saver.
-There are two styles of zero-turn mowers, mid-mount and front mount. With mid-mount zero turn mowers the deck sits under the mower, like a lawn tractor. They are the most common but they do not eliminate trimming. In fact they leave just as much grass to trim as your conventional lawn tractor. Front Mount zero turn mowers, where the deck sticks out the front of the unit do trim better than your old lawn tractor. They will get under fences, under bushes and around poles easier than mid-mount ZTR’s.
-Residential zero-turn mowers typically use the same decks as lawn tractors. What that means is they don’t mow any faster in a straight line as a good yard tractor. The time savings comes from their ability to turn around faster and make tighter turns when trimming. Many landowner and commercial zero turn mowers (over $4000) are designed to cut grass faster than traditional lawn tractors so your straight line mowing speed is improved. You have to move up to these higher priced units to see any significant time savings. For example, a typical lawn tractor cuts at a speed of 3-4 mph. A residential zero-turn will cut about 3-5. If you spend the extra money to buy a landowner grade though you can increase your mowing speed to 5-8 mph. NOTE: Just because a mower is advertised to go a certain speed it does not mean it will mow well at that speed. For example, a Craftsman GT6000 Garden Tractor will go 8 mph but it will only mow well about 4 mph. A general rule of thumb: If the zero-turn has a stamped deck it will only mow well at 3-5 mph. If the zero-turn costs over $4000 it will mow at 5-8 mph. These mid-priced zero-turns usually have 48 to 60 inches decks. The larger decks and higher ground speeds get the job done faster. (Brands are welcome to comment on their actual mowing speed at the end of this article)
– So where does the advertised time savings really happen? Once you learn how to turn your new zero-turn without making holes in your lawn you can “zero-turn” on the ends of your long open areas. When you get to the end of your yard and turn around to make the next pass, you can literally spin 180 degrees and come right back without having to back up and cut the strips of grass you would miss when making the turn with a lawn tractor. No more three-point turns.
When you are just mowing large areas back and forth even the residential zero-turns save time on the ends this way. There are also advanced techniques like the “reverse-zero turn-forward” maneuver that will cut seconds out of each turn-around. Over a full day of mowing those seconds can really add up.
– Residential mid-mount zero-turns do not cut better than lawn tractors. Mid-mount zero-turns do not trim better than lawn tractors. The main reason you see commercial lawn service companies using mid-mount zero turn mowers is they can fit more mid-mount ZTR’s on a trailer than you can the front-mount types. Landowner mid-mount zero-turns cut faster than lawn tractors and that is where the real time savings happens.
- Mid-mount Zero-turns also do other things besides mow lawn.
Time Savings – Residential Example:
I’ll use my lawn as an example. I have a one acre flat lawn with over 40 trees, and other landscape features to mow around:
- Using a 22 inch walk-behind it takes me about 3 1/2 hours to mow and trim.
- With a conventional 42 inch lawn tractor I can cut that down to 1 1/2 hours. About 20 minutes of that is trimming.
- With a 38 inch Husqvarna Articulated Front Deck Rider I can mow the lawn in 1 hour. About 5 minutes for trimming.
- With a 42 inch mid-mount residential zero-turn I can mow my yard in less than 1 hour. About 15 minutes of that is trimming!
Time Savings – Commercial Example:
Cemeteries have a lot of trimming. A typical job that requires 40 man-hours using conventional lawn tractors can be reduced to 25 man-hours with commercial mid-mount ZTR’s. The main time savings is mowing speed and maneuverability. Trimming takes about the same amount of time. By switching to front-mount ZTR’s that original 40 hour job can be reduced to 15 hours. Both mowing time and trimming time is reduced.
Is a residential zero-turn really what you need?
Limitations for all small residential zero-turns.
Small zero-turns can be fun and can save you time mowing your yard but they may not be the best choice for you. There are thousands of you who will read this and decide a small zero-turn is best for you, but you may also decide a small zero-turn is not the best choice. For example a Craftsman 25001 is a good dependable Zero-Turn but half the reviews I read are negative? Why? Because the owner did not understand the limitations of a residential zero turn, not because the machine is bad. If those reviewers had purchased any other brand they would say the same things about them.
Mother Earth News is another good example. They compared the $2400 Craftsman against zero-turn mowers costing $6000 to $17,000 and then rated it poorly without explaining the differences. (They did not rate any other small residential zero-turns)
Consumer Reports also wants you to be very clear about the limitations of small zero-turns and specifically cautions about using a zero-turn on slopes.
A Lawn or Yard Tractor with a tight turning radius will maneuver almost as well for most of us. For homeowners with slopes a Craftsman Pro Series Yard Tractor is a better choice.
1. If you have never owned a zero-turn there is a learning curve. They are easy to use and will save you time, but it will take you a couple of mowings to get the most out of your mower. Be very careful when you first start so you don’t slam the deck into trees, foundations, rock walls, etc. Practice going around objects closely with something that will not damage the mower before you go out and mow your yard. Take the plastic garbage can, a 5 gallon bucket or a bale of hay and practice trimming around them at first. If you think you are getting good, lay a bag of dog food, sack of flour or sugar on the ground and see if you can mow around it without ripping it open. Learn to keep the zero-turn’s rear wheels moving when practicing these maneuvers. Letting the inside wheel stop when turning will tear up your lawn.
After you master the art of driving one there are advanced driving techniques like the reverse zero-turn that will decrease your mowing time even more. These techniques are easy to learn.
2. Small zero-turns ride rough. On your typical mole infested lawn most women have to wear a sports bra to be comfortable driving one. You need a zero-turn that weighs over 700 lbs before they start to smooth out (the Craftsman 20424 is 900 lbs.) Even then, many of the higher weight, higher cost zero-turns also mow faster so the ride gets rougher again. I was so happy when my landscape company was successful enough that I could buy ExMark Zero Turns with a suspension seat. The air ride seat was a $600 option and I gladly paid it!
3. Small zero-turns that are weighted so they won’t pop wheelies going uphill, but will easily get stuck in sand, mud puddles and loose soil. If there is no turf, the front casters of a small zero-turn will plow into the soil and get stuck.
4. Small zero-turns that will turn well in loose soil usually won’t go up a hill without the front wheels coming off the ground. If you can lift the front end of your zero-turn by yourself don’t try mowing up a hill with it.
5. Small zero-turns will not turn going downhill. With wet turf, drought dry turf, and even good turf, the rear wheels can’t always get enough traction to turn the unit when it’s pointed downhill. Slow down before you go down the hill or mow the hill diagonally going down. When mowing with a small zero-turn across a slope they have a tendency to slide down the slope. This can be very embarrassing when you slide into the pond and very deadly when you slide off the lawn and over a landscape wall. NEVER, I repeat never mow a slope with a pond or drop-off at the bottom of the slope. Even the most expensive ZTR’s can lose traction and slide down the slope. Plan on a walk-behind mower or nature area for those types of slopes.
Steering wheel ZTR’s are better for slopes. They will turn as well or better than your lawn tractor. They also handle slopes better than lawn tractors because both rear wheels are driven all the time. In other words they don’t use a differential.
6. Small zero-turns may tip over backwards going up hill. A good rule of thumb is to try backing up the hill with your zero-turn. If the rear wheels lose traction and start to spin the slope is too steep to mow up. If you have a walk out basement mow the slope diagonally – going downhill! Yes, it takes more time, but it is safer.
7. Small zero-turns are delivered with too much air in the tires. Read the manual and adjust the air pressure to 12 lbs or so.
8. Small zero-turns push hard when not running. The transmission release lever may be in front of the transmission instead of on the rear frame like your yard tractor. There are two release levers. Even with the transmissions released they can still be hard to move. I find that tying a piece of rope to the front of the zero-turn and pull it is easier than trying to push it around.
9. Small zero-turns will tear up your lawn. The least expensive ones have rounded tries and tend to dig into your turf easily. Wider, flat tires work the best.
10. Small zero-turns do not have good traction. The turning traction is all on the rear wheels. They can be hard to turn on dry grass or wet grass.
11. Many retailers and most dealers have a 30 day return policy. You have a very short window to decide if you bought the right mower.
12. Many economy small zero-turn mowers do not mow in reverse. They will zero-turn (pull one lever back to rotate one tire in reverse while the other tire goes forward) but the deck shuts off when you pull both levers back. I don’t recommend disabling this feature.
13. Small zero-turn mowers will tear up and scratch anything behind them. I have a hitch on my Dixon ZTR and my wife has had it stuck in the chain link fence around the dog yard dozens of time. Look for a zero-turn with a rounded rear frame. Also don’t buy a small zero-turn where the engine sticks out farther than the rear frame. If you get too close and hit something with the rear you can easily damage your engine.
14. Residential zero-turn mowers should not be used to pull anything over 200 lbs. Most zero turn mowers under $3000 use Hydro-Gear EZT transmissions are not designed to pull a yard cart full of dirt, a sweeper full of green grass or especially a leaf vac. That is why most of the cheaper models do not come with a rear hitch. The transmissions are designed to give you years of use mowing your yard but they will burn out quickly if you try to pull loads like a yard cart filled with dirt or a leaf vac. If a dealer tries to tell you his zero-turn can pull a leaf vac and the mower is priced under $3000 ask him to include a life time warranty on the transmissions. If you would like a more detailed explanation just ask in the comments below.
15. Be very careful if the zero-turn only has great reviews. There should be reviews where people bought the wrong machine and didn’t like it or didn’t understand how to use it. If the unit only has great reviews I would suspect there are paid reviewers writing the reviews.
16. Zero-turns are finish cut mowers not field/pasture mowers. Even the $5000 to $14,000 commercial models are designed to mow your lawns beautifully but they don’t work well on grass/weeds over 6 inches. They don’t like stumps, rocks, dirt mounds or ant hills any better than your lawn tractor. If you want to mow the pasture when the grass is over 6 inches you will have to mow the same area at least twice. I will always suggest a rough cut mower like the Acrease rough cut or a “Bush Hog” brush mower.
Note. This is critical information when deciding on what type of lawn mower to buy: All zero-turn mowers are designed to mow lawns. They are designed to mow weekly or bi-weekly growth. They are NOT designed to mow pastures, timber, fields and paddocks. They are NOT designed to mow grass/weeds 12 inches to 6 feet tall. Mowing grass over 12 inches can/will damage deck spindles, belts, tires and bearings on even the most expensive ZTR’s.
Pastures, fields, paddocks and timber with grass and brush taller than 12 inches require a rotary cutter (bush hog) or rough cut mower. Yes, I know many of the mid-priced ZTR’s appear heavy duty enough but please don’t blame the mower or the brand when your mower requires $500 worth of repairs because you needed to mow your horse pasture.
17. NEVER, I repeat never mow a slope with a pond or drop-off at the bottom of the slope. Even the most expensive ZTR’s can lose traction and slide down the slope. Plan on a walk-behind mower or nature area for those types of slopes.
How do you actually drive a zero-turn?
If you have never driven a zero-turn before they do take some practice. If you don’t learn to drive it properly you will tear large divots out of your lawn. Why? Zero-turn mowers do not have a differential and it is up to you to keep the wheels moving when making a turn. If you allow one wheel to stop during the turn it skids and digs a hole in your lawn. This divoting is made worse on the cheaper residential zero-turns that have cheap rounded tires installed. Lawn tractors have a differential that allows that allows one rear wheel to travel at a different speed on a turn. In other words it allows the inside wheel on a turn to slow down, but continue to roll so it does not tear up your lawn. Depending on you and the zero-turn you are using it can take 5 minutes to 5 hours to become proficient.
Here is a video on how a differential works: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F40ZBDAG8-o
How exactly does a zero turn mower save you time compared to a lawn tractor?
Here is a newer article to help you: The Best Zero Turn Mower Buyer’s Guide – The best ZTR for you is not that hard to figure out..
Is this enough information? Feel free to ask questions or leave comments below.